Date
21 January 2017
Public lands managed by the Interior Department across the US support 17 bison herds, or about 10,000 head of buffalo. Photo: Texas Parks and Wildlife Dept
Public lands managed by the Interior Department across the US support 17 bison herds, or about 10,000 head of buffalo. Photo: Texas Parks and Wildlife Dept

Bison named US national mammal

Move over, American bald eagle. The North American bison is joining you as a symbol of the United States.

On Monday, Congress designated the bison as the national mammal of the US, Reuters reported.

The measure, signed into law by President Barack Obama, proclaims the bison’s role as a symbol for America’s heritage as a whole.

It cites the animal’s history as “integrally linked with the economic and spiritual lives of many Indian tribes through trade and sacred ceremonies”.

The image of the bison, a living emblem of the western frontier that roamed the continent by the millions before being hunted to near extinction in the late 1800s, adorned the back of the US five-cent coin, known as the nickel, for 25 years and has graced the US Interior Department seal since 1912.

Bison, also widely known as buffalo, are North America’s largest living land mammals.

Males of the shaggy, hump-shouldered species weigh up to 900 kilograms and stand 1.8 metres tall.

They once ranged by the tens of millions across the continent, most notably the Great Plains.

But unregulated hunting and government extermination programs reduced their numbers to just a few hundred by the late 19th century.

Fewer than 50 of the last surviving bison ultimately found refuge in Yellowstone National Park, where they were initially guarded by the US Cavalry.

Their numbers have since rebounded, and today Yellowstone — spanning parts of Wyoming, Montana and Idaho — is home to about 4,900 descendants of that remnant herd, representing the largest band of wild, pure-bred bison.

Despite their newfound celebrity status, bison provoke controversy, particularly surrounding the government’s practice of rounding up and sending hundreds of buffalo to slaughter each year when their numbers in Yellowstone exceed a population target of 3,000.

The long-standing policy was designed to keep stray Yellowstone bison from infecting cattle from neighboring ranches with brucellosis disease.

Public lands managed by the Interior Department in 12 states, including Alaska, support 17 bison herds in all, or about 10,000 head of buffalo.

Privately raised bison are estimated to number more than 160,000, mostly in the west and consisting mainly of animals that carry cattle genes and are bred for commercial production.

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